Effect of Nitric Oxide, Microperforated Packages, and Ionizing Radiation on Postharvest Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cv. Manila

Monday, July 22, 2013
Desert Ballroom: Salons 7-8 (Desert Springs J.W Marriott Resort )
Humberto Ramos , Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Edmundo Mercado-Silva , Food Research and Graduate Department, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Ma Estela Vázquez-Barrios , Posgradop e Investigación en Alimentos, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Eduardo Castaño-Tostado , Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho , Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Rámon Álvar Martínez-Peniche , Universidad Autónoma de Queretaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico
In Mexico, mango (Mangifera indicaL. cv. ‘Manila’) is widely accepted either for fresh consumption or industrial use. Among varieties, it has the second place of the total national production with 19.8%.  Although this variety possess similar or superior sensory qualities compared to the other exported mango varieties (such as Ataulfo, Kent, and Tommy Atkins),  Manila has not yet reached foreign markets, because its metabolic activity is three times higher than the others, causing a rapid loss of firmness and weight. Furthermore, mango is quite susceptible to anthracnose, a disease that produces a high loss postharvest. The present work studies the application of nitric oxide (NO) and microperforated packages (MP) in order to inhibit fruit softening and weight loss, and the use of ionizing gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment at cool storage (13 °C) and the transference to ambient temperature for 4 days. About 832 mangos at ¾ maturity were separated in two groups, irradiated (0.3 kGy) and non-irradiated (control). Both groups were treated against anthracnose (hydrothermal treatment; 53 °C, 6 minutes). Half of irradiated and non-irradiated groups were submerged in 1 mM nitroprusside of sodium solution (a NO donor). Control group was treated with distilled water. Mangoes were stored at 13 °C for 22 days in carton boxes with and without MP. Analyses were made every 4 days, three replicates of three fruits per treatment were analyzed for visual quality, anthracnose damage, loss of weight, internal and external color, firmness, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The NO treatments did not influenced significantly any parameters. The use of MP reduced by half the loss of weight, 7.54% compared to 15.21% at 22 days of storage. Ionizing radiation was the best treatment, significantly delayed fruit softening the first 10 days and retarded color development in storage at 13 °C. The irradiated group presented 77.7% anthracnose free damaged fruits compared to 54.1% from the non-irradiated. Moreover, non-irradiated fruits had 22% damage in level moderate to severe compared to 1% for the irradiated ones. In conclusion, the use of MP reduce in 50% the loss of weight. Ionizing radiation treatment (0.3 kGy) of mango cv. ‘Manila’ delayed fruit color and softening as well as maintained fruit quality and reduced the decay incidence.
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